International Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (IJREE)​


The International Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (IJREE) is a publication of the National Centre for Energy and Environment. The Journal contains scientific research into all aspects of Renewable Energy resources, their interaction with the environment and relationship with man.


This journal is multidisciplinary in approach and interdisciplinary in scope promoting findings in a wide range of subject areas: Renewable Energy Technology, Agricultural Engineering Technology, Biomass Feedstock and Conversion, Environmental Forensics, Environmental Law and Policy, Environmental Management, Human Health and Lifecycle Assessment, Biological Modelling, Environmental Engineering, Energy Efficiency, Climate Change and Carbon Capture Technology.
In view of the multidisciplinary nature of the journal, the Editorial Board and Editorial Advisory Committee are made up of a broad spectrum of internationally recognized scientist, academicians and policy makers who will encourage publications that display only the highest standards of international scholarship.

NCEE Journal ( IJREE )

IJREE Volume 1

Table of Contents

  1. Pragmatic Approach to Biodiesel Production using Jatropha Curcas oil. C.S. Ezeanyanaso, I.M. Bugaje and O.J. Okunola – page 1
  2. Studies of some of the factors affecting base-catalyzed transesterification of rubber seed oil.  John Edo and T.O.K. Audu – page 9
  3. Novel solid-acid catalysts for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. James O. Ugbomoiko, David E. Ogbeifun and Felix E. Okieimen – page 17
  4. Inventory of farms involved in livestock production in Edo and Delta States and their potentials as sources of animal waste biomass for energy generation and biogas production.  J.M. Olomu,  S.O. Nwokoro, A.M. Orheruata,  C.E. Okaka, C.P. Kalu, D.I. Igbinomwahia, U. Ochei,  D.N. Izekor and S.O. Okhokere – page 31
  5. Comparative Assessment of Poultry Droppings/Litter and Swine Faeces as Feedstock for Biogas Production. C. Olomu, E. Ifie, E. Kegbe, E. Ezieshi,  L.I.N. Ezemonye and J.M. Olomu – page 40
  6. Comparative assessment of the effect of water soluble fractions of fuel oils on microalgae. M.O. Kadiri and M. Enoma – page 48
  7. Ecotoxicological Consideration of Demulsifier, Corrosion Inhibitor and drilling fluid    using Biological Sentinels. D.F. Ogeleka, L.I.N. Ezemonye, I. Tongo, A.A. Enuneku, T.O. Ikpesu and T.E. Ogbomida – page 56
  8. Biochar from Prosopis africana shell and Palm Kernel Seeds: Physical, Chemical and Adsorption Properties. Sunday E. Elaigwu and Gillian M. Greenway – page 62
  9. Soil application of biochar. Effect on soil nutrient retention capacity. Victoria O. Idode and Felix E. Okieimen – page 67
  10. Instantaneous control of mini/micro hydro plants generated output voltage under varying load conditions. Igbinovia, S.O. and R.E. Ochagwuba – page 77
  11. Socio-economic implications of renewable energy in climate change adaptation. L.I.N. Ezemonye and C.F. Okolocha – page 86
  12. Operation of large hydropower dams in Nigeria: Socio-economic and environmental issues.  B.F. Sule – page 100

IJREE Volume 2

Table of Contents

  1. Efficient cost Estimation Of electric Energy Utilization: Using load Management Method. N. Bello and S.O Igbinovia. page 1-11
  2. Evaluating the Performance Characteristics of Locally Designed and Implemented Condensers Suitable For Electric Circuits  F. O. Agbontaen, S.O. Igbinovia and F. O. Osayi. page 12-21
  3. Statistical Analysis of Wind Energy Potential In Benin City Using the 2-Parameter Weibull Distribution. P. Osatohanmwen,  F.O, Oyegue,  S.M Ogbonmwan. page 22-31
  4. Biogas Production From a Blend Of Water Hyacinth -Eichhorniacrassipes (Martius) Solmslaubach (Pontederiaceae) And Cattle Rumen Waste (Dung) U. M. Ajieh, U. P Onochie, B. F Kubeyinje, R.T Orerome, O Akingba. page 32-41
  5. Impacts Of Renewable Energy Option On Ecosystem And  Livelihood. O. Olokede, N.T Musa, B.G Adisa, L Ikenna-Mark. page 42-49
  6. Energy Technology And Management For Sustainable Development. T.B. Ibraheem, D.A. Adeleke, A.I. Ibrahim, S. Haruna. page 50-55
  7. Characterization Of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Soil And Earthworm (Aporrectodea Longa) In The Vicinity Of Two Automobile Workshops In Benin City. E. Biose, S.O. Dieta, A.A Enuneku. Page 56-64
  8. Sedimentation Studies Of Owena Multipurpose Reservoir. J.O. Aribisala, F. Adetanmi, O. M. Ogundipe. page 65-80
  9. Ontological Representation Of Nigeria Wildlife. G. O. Ekuobase, F.O. Oliha, E. P. Ebietomere. page 81-92
  10. Distillate Yield Improvement Using A Parabolic Dish Reflector Coupled Single Slope Basin Solar Still With Thermal Energy Storage Using Beeswax. A Kuhe, A. O Edeoja. page 93-101
  11. Socio-Economic Determinants Of Household Energy Consumption Pattern In Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. M.N  Ezemonye, C .N Emeribe. page 102-111
  12. Comparison Of Physico-Chemical Characteristics Of Ethanol Yield Production From Palm Wine. O. Biose, M. Imhontu, O. Akenzua, C.N Emeribe, O. Ehigiamusoe. page 112-125
  13. Appraisal Of Charcoal Production Drivers In Ibarapa Region, Oyo State, Nigeria. A. O. Daramola, A. O.Ayeni. page 126-138
  14.  Changing Patterns In Seasonal And Annual Distributions Of Climatic Indices Over Sudano-Sahelian Ecological Zone (Ssez) Of Nigeria. L.I. Ezenekwe, M.N Ezemonye, C.N Emeribe. page 139-149
  15. Analysis Of Trends In The Variability Of Monthly Mean Minimum And Maximum Temperature And Relative Humidity In Benin City. S.M. Ogbonmwan, E. T. Ogbomida, N. O. Uwadia, O. R. Efegoma, G. L. Umoru. page 150-165
  16. Evaluation Of In-Cabin Levels Of Fine Particulates And Carbon Monoxide In Shuttle Buses Along A Major Intra-City Route In Benin City, Nigeria. E.W. Omagamre, J.E. Ukpebor, E.E. Ukpebor, G.E. Okungbowa,  E.H. Odionye. page 166-178
  17. Design And Implementation Of Automatic Changeover Switch (With Step Loading) For Renewable Energy Systems. C.A. Osaretin, E.I. Ibhadode, S.O.  Igbinovia. page 179-192
  18. Comparative Analysis Of Exhaust Gases From Generating Sets Powered By Biogas And Gasoline. J. O. Igbinawan; P. A. Oriaifo; E.A. Ogujor; F. A. Aisien. Page – 193-201
  19. Economic Analysis On Power Generation From Oil Palm Residues: A Case Study Of Nifor. U. P Onochie, Aliu S. A. page 202-210
  20. Changing Pattern of Rainfall Peak In The Sudano-Sahelian Region Of Nigeria. Godwin O. Atedhor. Page 211-221
  21. Assessment of BTEX And Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Shrimps From Benin River and Associated Risk From Consumption.  A.A Enuneku, O Ogbeide. L.I Ezemonye. E Omeniwa, S.I Idiahi. page 222-232
  22. Green(Er) Biodiesel From Ternary PKO/DPK/AGO Blends. Sunday O. Aghariaha, Felix E. Okieimen. Page 233-239
  23. Assessment of Electricity Supply Operation in Nigeria: A Case Study of University of Benin and University of Benin Teaching Hospital. F.O. Odiase , P.T Aikhoje., S.O Igbinovia. Page 240-249

  24. Technical Power Losses Reduction on Distribution Network of University of Benin Teaching Hospital. O. F. Odiase and O.Agbonaye. Page 250-263

journal vol 2

For Authors

  • Instructions to Author
  • Publication Ethics Policy
  • Article Correction Policy
  • Processing Charges

Publishing a paper in IJREE requires Paper Processing Charges that cover dispatch and editorial expenses, and will be paid by the submitting author upon acceptance of the Paper for publication.

For ALL authors – N20,000 or USD $100 (For one entire research paper publication). This amount covers the charge for two(2) copies of the Journal.

N.B: Extra copies will attract additional fee of N3,000 or $15.Original research papers, short research communications, reviews or mini-reviews, letters to the editor, technical note can be submitted to the journal only on the condition that the article has not been previously published in any other form and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.


These should describe original, novel and carefully confirmed findings, and experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. The length of a full paper should be the minimum required to describe and interpret the work clearly.


A short research communication should present a concise study, or timely and novel research findings that might be less substantial than a research paper. The manuscript length is limited to 2,500 words (excluding references and abstract). It should have a set of keywords and an abstract (under 200 words, unreferenced), containing background of the work, the results and their implications. Results and Discussion section should be combined and followed by conclusion. Materials and Methods will remain as a separate section. The number of references is limited to 40 and there should be not more than 4 figures and/or table combined.


Brief description of new or modification of existing technique which mark major advances and are of practical value.


Brief or mini-reviews should be authoritative and of broad interest. Submission of mini-reviews and perspectives covering topics of current interest are welcome and encourage. Mini-reviews should be concise and no longer than 4-6 printed pages.


This is to discuss controversial and/or inter disciplinary topics, viewpoints and commentaries, brief description of novel finding that might not be suitable for a regular research paper or short research communication, and any other issues that might be of interest to our readers. It is limited to a maximum of 800 words (two print pages maximum). Letter can have one figure/table and maximum of 10 references.


All portions of the manuscript must be typed double-spaced and all numbered starting from the title page. English is the preferred language all through contribution. Writing in French (with abstract in English) will be considered.


This should be specific and precise. It should not be more than 2 to 3 lines long, and should describe the contents of the author’s full name and affiliations, then name of the corresponding author along with phone number, fax and Email information. Present addresses of authors should appear as footnote.


The abstract should be self-contained and citation free and should not exceed 150 words.


This section should be succinct, with no subheadings. It should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. It should be understandable to colleagues from a broad range of scientific disciplines.


Scientific details must be provided to allow for replication of results. Appropriate chemical names should be given and strains of organisms should be specified. Suppliers of materials need only be mentioned if this may affect the results. Use System International (SI) units and symbols. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly.


This section should describe concisely the rationale of the investigation and its outcomes. Data should not be repeated in both a table and a figure. Tables and figures should be selected to illustrate specific points. Do not tabulate or illustrate points that can be adequately and concisely described in the next. Result should be explained, but largely without referring to the literature.


Tables and figures should be numbered (1,2,3 etc) as they appear in the text. Figures should preferably be the size intended for publication and should not exceed 9-12cm. Tables, figures and photographs should be carefully marked on the reverse side with the number, first author’s name and orientation (top). Legends should be typed double-spaced separately from figures. Photographs must be originals of high quality. Photocopies are not accepted.


This should not simply recapitulate the results. It should relate to previous work and interpret them. Combined results and discussion sections are encouraged when appropriate.


This optional part should include a statement thanking those who assisted substantially with work relevant to the study. Grant support is included in this section.


References to work “in press” must be accompanied by a copy of acceptance letter from the Journal. References should not be given to personal communication, unpublished data, Manuscripts in preparation, letter, Company Publications, Patent pending and URLs for websites. Abstracts of papers presented at meetings are not permissible. These references should appear as parenthetical expressions in the text.


Ezemonye (2005), Ugbomoiko et al. (2012)

Ezemonye, L.I.N (2005). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PBCs) levels and distribution in Ethiope and Benin Rivers of the Niger-Delta surface water and sediments: International Journal of Environmental Studies 65:491-504

Ezemonye, L.I.N and Ilechie I., (2006). Ecological effect of pesticide contamination on amphibian tadpole (Ptychnadena bibroni) of the Niger-Delta of Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 28 (64)91-100

Ezemonye L.I.N, Ogeleka D.F. and Okiemen F.E. (2009). Lethal toxicity of industrial detergent on bottom devilling sentinels. International Journal of Sediment Research 24:478-482


All articles should be submitted online as a file attachment to The papers should be typewritten in Times New Roman with font size 12, double spacing on A4 size Microsoft Word document. Maximum paper length is 18 pages.

Submission of a paper for publication implies the transfer of the copyright from the author (s) to the publisher upon acceptance; and any accepted paper becomes the permanent property of the International Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment (IJREE) and may not be reproduced by any means without the written permission of the Editorial board. The copyright Agreement form can be downloaded below.

📄 IJREE Copyright Agreement Form

Ethical standards for publication exist to ensure reliable & high-quality scientific research publications, public trust in scientific findings, and that researchers receive credit for their work & ideas. IJREE follows strict Code of Conduct and aims to adhere to its Best Practice Guidelines.

  • Plagiarism

All articles published by IJREE are committed to publishing only original material, i.e., material that has neither been published elsewhere, nor   is under review elsewhere. Manuscripts that are found to be plagiarize from a manuscript by other authors, whether published or unpublished, will incur plagiarism penalty.

  • Duplicate Submission

Manuscripts that are found to have been published elsewhere, or to be under review elsewhere, will incur duplicate submission sanctions. If authors have used their own previously published work, or work that is currently under review, as the basis for a submitted manuscript, they are required to cite the previous work and indicate how their submitted manuscript offers novel contributions beyond those of the previous work.

  • Redundant Publications

Redundant publications involve the inappropriate division of study outcomes into several articles.

  • Citation Manipulation

Submitted manuscripts that are found to include citations whose primary purpose is to increase the number of citations to a given author’s work, or to articles published in a particular journal, will incur citation manipulation penalty.

  • Data Fabrication & Falsification

Submitted manuscripts that are found to have either fabricated or falsified experimental results, including the manipulation of images, will incur data fabrication and falsification penalty.

  • Penalty

In the event that there are documented violations of any of the above mentioned policies of IJREE, the following rules will be applied:

    •  Immediate rejection of the infringing manuscript.
    • Prohibition against all of the authors for any new submissions to IJREE, either individually or in combination with other authors of the infringing manuscript, as well as in combination with any other authors. This prohibition will be imposed for a minimum of 2 years.
    • Prohibition against all of the authors from serving on the Editorial Board of IJREE.
    • In cases where the violations of the above policies are found to be particularly offensive/flagrant, the publisher reserves the right to impose additional restrictions beyond those described above.

Print and online corrections. The version of an article which is published online is considered the final and complete version. Even though it is possible to correct this version, our policy (in common with other publishers) is not to do so, except in very limited circumstances.

We are only able to correct typographical errors in the following: author names, affiliations, articles titles, and abstracts and keywords. In such cases, an erratum or corrigendum would be necessary as well (see below), so that there is a record to explain the difference between the online and print versions.

We can publish a correction to your article if there is a serious error, for example with regard to scientific accuracy, or if your reputation or that of the journal would be affected. We do not publish corrections that do not affect the contribution in a material way or significantly impair the reader’s understanding of the contribution (such as a spelling mistake or a grammatical error).

Please send an email to if you need any changes to be effected.


An erratum will be used if an important error has been introduced during the production of the journal article (one that affects the publication record, the scientific integrity of the paper, the reputation of the authors or of the journal), including errors of omission such as failure to make factual proof corrections requested by authors within the deadline provided by the journal and within journal policy.
We do not publish errata for typing errors except where an apparently simple error is significant (for example, an incorrect unit). A significant error in a figure or table is corrected by publication of a new corrected figure or table as an erratum. The figure or table is republished only if the editor considers it necessary.


A corrigendum is a notification of an important error made by the authors of the article. All authors must sign corrigenda submitted for publication. In cases where co-authors disagree, the editors will take advice from independent peer-reviewers and impose the appropriate amendment, noting the dissenting author(s) in the text of the published version.


An addendum is a notification of a peer-reviewed addition of information to a paper, for example in response to a reader’s request for clarification. Addenda do not contradict the original publication, but if the author inadvertently omitted significant information available at the time, this material can be published as an addendum after peer review.

Addenda are published only rarely and only when the editors decide that the addendum is crucial to the reader’s understanding of a significant part of the published contribution.

Publishing a paper in IJREE requires Paper Processing Charges that cover dispatch and editorial expenses , and will be paid by the submitting author upon acceptance of the Paper for publication.

For ALL authors – N20,000 or USD $100 (For one entire research paper publication). This amount covers the charge for two(2) copies of the Journal.

N.B: Extra copies will attract additional fee of N3,000 or $15.

Editorial Board


Professor F. E. Okieimen
University of Benin, Benin City


Prof. E.J. Bala


DG/CEO, Energy Commission of Nigeria, Abuja.
Prof. Gillian M. Greenway
University of Hull, UK
Prof. L. I. N. Ezemonye
University of Benin, Benin City.
Dr. Joseph C. Akunna
School of Contemporary Sciences Dundee, UK.
Prof. Kirk Semple
Lancaster University, UK.
Prof. B.O. Solomon
National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA), Abuja.
Dr. Martin Ogharandukun
Nuclear, Safety, Physical Security and Safeguards, Abuja.
Prof. E.A.C. Nwanze
University of Benin, Benin City.
Prof. A.A Zuru
Kebbi State University of Science and Technology, Aleiro.
Prof. T.O.K. Audu
University of Benin, Benin City.
Prof. Martin G. Ogbe
The Federal University, Lafia.


Prof. I.N. Itodo
University of Agriculture, Makurdi.
Prof. (Mrs.) M.O Kadiri
University of Benin, Benin City.
Dr. Chukwumerije Okereke
University of Reading, UK.
Prof. L.A. Atsegbua
University of Benin, Benin City.
Prof. K. Clive Thomson
Alcontrol Laboratories, Rotherham, UK
Dr. Akanimo Odon
Lancaster University, UK.
Prof. Mike Elliot
University of Hull, Hull, UK.
Prof. I.N. Onwura
University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Prof. B.F. Sule
National Centre for Hydro Power Research and Development, University of Ilorin, Ilorin
Dr. G.O. Unachukwu
National Centre for Energy Research and Development, Nsukka,
Prof. B.G. Danshehu
Sokoto Energy Research Centre, Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto.
Prof. S.O. Azi
University of Benin, Benin City.
Prof. I.K.E. Ekweozor
Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt.

Other Centre Research Publications

Other publications of the Centre include the following:


The book, A JATROPHA MANUAL, presents in a very concise readable and understandable form the historical origin, morphological description, geographical distribution, botanical classification and the local names of the various species of Jatropha plant to enable their easy identification of use in biofuel production. It also describe the ecology, life history and cultivation of Jatropha plants from the early stages of soil requirements, planting, plant development, flowering and fruiting, plants propagation, plantation and nutrient management, seed yield, pest and disease control and prevention, to later stages of harvesting and storage. The manual most importantly presents the processes of oil extraction and bio diesel production from the Jatropha plant as well as the processes of cleaning the extracted vegetable oil.

(ISBN: 978-978-911-973-2)



Proceedings from the Workshops, Sensitization and Awareness Forum(SAF) on Renewable Initiatives and Environment Protection in Edo State, 25TH AUGUST, 2009 and Annual Public Lecture Forum organized by Global Educational Initiative For Nigeria (GEIFON) and National Centre for Energy and Environment (NCEE), University of Benin, December, 2009.

The workshops provided the opportunity for experts and policy makers to discuss the strategic role of renewable energy and environmental protection in the mitigation of climate change, for the overall infrastructural, social and economic development of the Nigerian economy. The book features Keynote Addresses , Scientific Presentations  and Communiques from both Workshops.

(ISBN: 978-978-914-753-4)